Committee language: English
The Security Council (Security Council) is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. The SC has " the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security" (UN Charter Article 24).
The Security Council consists of five permanent members (Permanent 5- P5) China, France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States and ten non-permanent members (Elected 10 – E10). Half of the non-permanent members are elected every year for a period of two years. The seated relationship of the non-permanent members between the regional groups is regulated.
In order to pass a resolution, the approval of nine members including all five permanent members is required. This gives the "P5 states" a controversial veto right. Its resolutions are binding under international law if they identify a threat to world peace, which is why it is also considered the most powerful committee of the United Nations.
The Security Council defines and decides whether a particular situation poses a threat or a breach of world peace. In order to secure peace, the Security Council can take on a mediating role or refer states to the International Court of Justice, but it can also impose a wide variety of sanctions, send UN peacekeeping troops (blue helmet soldiers) and authorize (humanitarian) interventions. The Security Council only tries to use military interventions as a last means when other attempts, for example with economic sanctions, have failed.
Topics MUNHN 2021:
Situation in Libya
Since Ghaddafi’s „removal “in 2011, Libyan had two governments both of which claimed to be the legal one. After the situation reassured with the help of international organisations, general elections had been announced. Unfortunately, these efforts did not come to fruition and in May 2019 General Haftar started an offensive to bring Libya under his control. This conflict escalated in the last months and lead to the deaths of hundreds of people. Therefore, the Security Council of the United Nations has decided to put the situation in Libya on his agenda.
Civil War in Syria
The armed conflict in Syria has been raging for eight years now. Armies of the most diverse states and organisations are fighting each other on the two hundred square kilometres of the country in an inhuman pandemic of armed violence. So far, disregard for the UN Charter and independent fighting by individual countries has led to the death of over 1.5 million people and the displacement and flight of a further 6 million. Since previous attempts to pacify Syria have not led to the desired result, the UN Security Council has decided to put the Syrian conflict back on its agenda.
Humanitarian crisis in Yemen
Since 2013 Yemen experiences war-comparable conditions. After the collapse of the official government, many different groups began fighting over the power in Jemen. This worsened the humanitarian situation in Iraq significantly. According to UN-sources more than 19 million Yemenites are dependant on help. It is on the delegates in the Security Council to solve the conflict and provide the people with opportunities to overcome war and find peace.