These committees are simulated at MUNHN 2020:
The General Assembly (for short UNGA) is the full assembly of the 193 member states of the UN. Each member state has one vote. Thus, the General Assembly is the most likely to live up to the principle of sovereign equality and the idea of giving all members a voice. The General Assembly meets annually at UN headquarters in New York City.
The General Assembly may discuss practically any issue of international importance that is not dealt with by the Security Council. Its tasks also include the adoption of the UN budget (UN Charter Article 17) and the admission of new member states.
The decisions (resolutions) of the General Assembly are not binding under international law, but only of a recommendatory nature, but are usually taken in consensus with all member states, i.e. unanimously.
Only in internal organizational matters, such as the budget, can the General Assembly, as the supreme organ of the United Nations, take binding decisions.
Human Rights Council ( for short HRC )
Committee language: English
The Human Rights Council of the UN (United Nations Human Rights Council, for short: UNHRC) is one of the subsidiary organs of the General Assembly and is the main UN forum for cooperation on human rights (Resolution 60/251). The Human Rights Council is obliged to meet at least three times a year and consists of 47 states, which are elected by the General Assembly according to the regional group principle for a period of three years.
The main task of the MRR is to support states in fulfilling their human rights obligations and to make recommendations to the General Assembly regarding the further development of international law in the field of human rights. To this end, the MRR regularly reviews each individual UN member state within the framework of the Universal Periodic Review and may convene special procedures that deal specifically with a human rights situation in a state or a human rights issue. Other instruments of the HRC are the advisory committees and complaints procedures.
The Security Council ( for short SC )
The Security Council (Security Council) is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. The SC has " the primary responsibility for maintaining international peace and security" (UN Charter Article 24).
The Security Council consists of five permanent members (Permanent 5- P5) China, France, Great Britain, Russia, and the United States and ten non-permanent members (Elected 10 – E10). Half of the non-permanent members are elected every year for a period of two years. The seated relationship of the non-permanent members between the regional groups is regulated.
In order to pass a resolution, the approval of nine members including all five permanent members is required. This gives the "P5 states" a controversial veto right. Its resolutions are binding under international law if they identify a threat to world peace, which is why it is also considered the most powerful committee of the United Nations.
The Security Council defines and decides whether a particular situation poses a threat or a breach of world peace. In order to secure peace, the Security Council can take on a mediating role or refer states to the International Court of Justice, but it can also impose a wide variety of sanctions, send UN peacekeeping troops (blue helmet soldiers) and authorize (humanitarian) interventions. The Security Council only tries to use military interventions as a last means when other attempts, for example with economic sanctions, have failed.